1. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is becoming a serious urban health risk in China.
2. Unlike conventional chemical contaminants, antimicrobial resistant genes can be amplified in the environment through the spread and proliferation of bacteria and across organisms (horizontal gene transfer).
3. Urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are hotspots of AMR fueled by human consumption of antibiotics and discharge of other toxic chemicals.
4. This calls for urgent action against the dissemination of AMR through rapid urbanisation.
5. A systems approach to reduce the risk of AMR includes the development of surveillance capacities, pubic awareness and training, develop multi-sector action plans, and international cooperation.